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August 4, 2014

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iStock_000019837633XSmall - Copy

Performance Testing Book Roundup

Here is a sample of some books on performance testing.  Their sales rank within the performance testing category, number of customer reviews, and people-who-bought-that-also-viewed-this on is an indicator of their relevance to the field.  So that is how I picked the list.

I have not read all of these, so I list part of all of their table of comments, comments by the publisher and buyers, publication date, number of pages, and price.  All of that should help you see at a glance what each book covers and how deeply it covers it and whether you might want to dig into that or recommend it to someone on your staff.

In these fast cloud-computing-big-data-paradigm-shifting days, something even 5 years old can seem dated.  While the performance testing tools are changing as we speak, the basic principles are the same, so something 7 years old is very much relevant today.

“Performance Testing Guidance for Web Applications.”  by Microsoft.  Microsoft Press. 2007. 288 pages. $20 paperback.

Provides and end-to-end approach to performance testing. This book is #4 bestseller in the Performance Optimization category at

Table of Contents:

  • Fundamentals of Web Application Performance
  • Types of Performance Testing
  • Risks Addressed through Performance Testing
  • Web Application Performance Testing Core Activities
  • Coordinating Performance Testing with an Iteration-based Process
  • Managing an Agile Performance Test Cycle
  • Managing the Performance Test Cycle in a Regulated (CMMI) Environment
  • (…and more…)

Customer Reviews

“The authors explain concepts in terms that can be understood by a broad technical audience. The authors also include an introduction to the Agile and CMMI methodologies from a performance perspective.”

“The Art of Application Performance Testing: Help for Programmers and Quality Assurance.”  By Ian Molyneaux. O’Relly Media.  2009. 158 pages. $32.26 paperback.

Table of Contents:

  • Why Performance Test?
  • The Fundamentals of Effective Application Performance Testing
  • The Process of Performance Testing
  • Interpreting Results: Effective Root-Cause Analysis
  • Application Technology and its Impact on Performance Testing

Customer Reviews

“This well-written primer provides just enough information to help one get started with automated performance testing.”

Performance Testing with JMeter 2.9” by Bayo Erinle.  Packt Publishing. 2013.  $14.59 Kindle, $35.99 paperback.

Table of Contents:

  • Performance Testing Fundamentals
  • Recording your First Test
  • Submitting Forms
  • Managing Sessions
  • Resource Monitoring
  • Distributed Testing
  • Helpful Tips

Customer Reviews

“If you’re looking to learn JMeter (and start testing after a couple of hours of reading) then Performance testing with JMeter 2.9 does an excellent job of actually teaching you how to use JMeter step-by-step and not just providing a reference manual.”

Software Performance and Scalability: A Quantitative Approach.” By Henry H. Liu. Wily. 2009. 375 pages.  $76.30 hardcover.

This author is an engineer at VMware. This text looks suitable for an academic setting or someone developing their own product with some quite complicated mathematics covered in the appendix.

Table of Contents

  • Hardware Platform
  • Software Platform
  • Testing Software Performance and Scalability
  • Applying Queuing Theory
  • (…case studies…)
  • Defining API Profiling Framework
  • (…more on API profiling…)

Editorial Reviews:

“The practicality of the subject in a real-world situation distinguishes this book from others available on the market.”

Customer reviews:

“The book provides both the analytical and measurement aspects of performance and scalability.”

“What’s special about this book is that the author presents the information in an easy-to-read fashion without being superficial.  ”

July 9, 2014

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Screen Shot 2014-05-16 at 2.38.29 PM

Latest Microsoft Security Bulletins

Microsoft has issued more security bulletins lately than usual (It seems), including three on a single day: June 17. (One was a revision of another, but that still makes two.) What was even odder is you can no longer receive these by email, but have to check their website for those, but there is an RSS feed and a Twitter account Microsoft says, “…due to changing governmental policies concerning the issuance of automated electronic messaging, Microsoft is suspending the use of email notifications…”

Reviewing security issues can raise your awareness of the kind of security issues there are with Windows, plus let you to download security patches to address those. Often these security bugs are related to non-Microsoft software. Adobe Flash frequently showed up on the list.

A recent Adobe Flash hack was illustrative of how some of these attacks work.

Because of security enhancements by Microsoft, malware can only run inside another process and not as a process by itself. The reasons for that are an infected .dll cannot be run, because it would not be signed with a digital security by a legitimate issuer. Microsoft added that as a requirement to defeat some types of hacker attack. An .exe hacker program cannot be run unless someone is careless enough to do that without paying attention or without being trained against such risks. So hackers have to look for other ways to get inside the machine by getting inside existing processes.

A webpage can instantiate a .dll by using the HTML tag. Someone was able to do that to execute a particular method in an Abode Flash .dll. That Adobe method had a memory buffer overflow issue that let the hacker read data beyond the memory in which the Adobe .dll was supposed to run. Then the hacker could read the memory of other programs running in the computer. Then it is just a matter of finding the address of whatever flawed .dll the hacker wants to load and then instructing the program to go there. Now they have elevated privileges to what is essentially a command shell and can download other malware and run scripts and even use ftp to send data out.

Here are some of the recent Microsoft Security Advisories, each is assigned a number.

Thus first one addresses what we were just talking about with the requirement that .dlls be signed. They do not mention what is the weakness but say that the certificate will no longer allow “extraneous information.” Presumably someone could do something with that.

Change to .Net framework that would prevent a man-in-the middle attack again TLS (i.e. SSL v3) thus allowing a hacker to read data in cleartext.

Here is one related to Adobe Flash (again). It relates to storing clear text passwords in the registry plus using Flash to gain access to by exploiting security weaknesses in IE. It is interesting to learn reading this alert that a hacker can use either a website or a Microsoft Word document to launch this attack. That must be why Microsoft Office 2013 now offers an enable editing button to protect against that; it is turned off by default. So if someone sends you a document, you can open if without worrying about the malware if you do not press enable editing thus avoiding exposing your computer to the malicious ActiveX control.

This affects the Malware Protection Engine, which must be a part of Microsoft Security Essentials. It allows a hacker to send the software a specially-constructed file to cause the service to get hung up thus rendering it able to do any more malware scans.

Fixes 57, yes 57, security issues with Internet Explorer. It is rated as critical for IE versions 8 and higher. (Version 8 is quite old.) The issue says the hacker “could hijack a mutually authenticated TLS connection between Internet Explorer and an arbitrary target server.” That means a hacker could tap into an existing TLS session and then use that to gain access to encrypted data between the client and server. So it is a replay attack.

TCP denial of service issue. Denial of service is usually an exploit of the TCP SYN-ACK-SYN process. Others are executed by sending malformed TCP packets or a SYN with no ACK, thus tying up the port and socket until it times out. This particular issue is related to a specially-formatted packet.

June 4, 2014

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Why DevOps Needs a Friend

On Sys-Con Media, Larry Dragich makes a case for why Application Performance Management (APM) is a necessary tool for the area of Development and Operations (DevOps). Certain principles, like end-user-experience, are found in both APM and DevOps. As Dragich says,

Similar to your most trusted watch dog, [APM] alerts us to anomalies when events occur, providing awareness to the environment that only they can observe. This is where APM can bridge the gap between Development and Operations, supporting the entire application lifecycle.

Check out the full post, Why DevOps Needs a Friend, posted on Sys-Con Media.

May 30, 2014

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DevOps Is Great for Startups, but for Enterprises It Won’t Work—Yet

In The Wall Street Journal’s CIO Journal, Rachel Shannon-Solomon has a different perspective on DevOPs than Gene Kim has. She found that there is no lack of appetite to experiment with DevOps practices at the enterprise scale—the pulse within Fortune 500s and specifically financial services firms surveyed is that large, DevOps-savvy tech companies such as Facebook Inc. and Google Inc. are able to move so much faster, and that internal tech teams within large organizations should be able to do so as well. But ultimately, there are few true change agents within enterprise IT willing to affect DevOps implementations.

Today the odds seem to be heavily stacked against them, but as concern for the bottom line grows more individual change agents within large organizations may emerge.

Check out the full post, DevOps is Great for Startups, but for Enterprises IT Won’t Work – Yet, posted on The Wall Street Journal Blog – CIO Journal.

April 30, 2014

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Intel CPU Performance 1

Intel Performance Counter Monitor

If you want to know what each core on each CPU in your system is doing, you need a more sophisticated tool than the Windows Performance Monitor.  Intel offers a tool that you can download and compile to get core-level CPU information.  This is the Intel Performance Counter Monitor.  It works on Windows and Linux.

The reason you need that, Intel says, is the CPU % utilization shown on the Windows Task Monitor Performance Monitor screen is not a 100% accurate statistic for measuring CPU performance.  The algorithm used to calculate it is not accurate on multi core and multiple CPU systems with simultaneous multithreading (in other words, pretty much every system).  The definition of “CPU% utilization” is the number of time slots available to handle an instruction.  That assumes the CPU can only do one the thing at a time in a time-slicing manner.  Not only can a multiple-core, multiple-CPU processor handle more than one task at a time, those CPUs (e.g. I3, I5, I7) that use Intel’s hyper threading technology let each thread to handle more than one task at a time.  (Intel says that gives a 30% boost.)

As you can see from the screen below, the Performance Monitor shipped with Windows 8 just gives information on the aggregate of all cores, and as we said above, Intel says this number is not necessarily correct, plus it does not give you core-level visibility.

Intel CPU Performance 1

PCM shows information on each core.  It either works as a standalone program, pcmon.exe:

Intel CPU Performance 2

or is installed inside the Microsoft Performance Monitor, it gives an additional tab with CPU-level information.

Intel CPU Performance 3

Installation Instructions

Here is what I did to get PCM installed on my system:

  1. Download Visual C++ 2010 Express, so that you can compile the code.
  2. Download Intel Performance Counter Monitor from here
  3. Compile this Visual C++ project IntelPerformanceCounterMonitorV2.6\PCM_Win\pcm.vcxproj
  4. Create a folder and copy this compiled executable intelperformancecountermonitorv2.6\IntelPerformanceCounterMonitorV2.6\PCM_Win\Debug\pcm.exe there.
  5. Download this CPU temperature monitoring utility (so that you do not have to compile the .DLLs yourself, which would also require that you learn how to digitally sign them)
  6. Unzip that then copy these four .dlls below into the same folder that you just created:

Intel CPU Performance 4

Then run pcm.exe.

When I ran it, I got stuck, because some other process had already loaded up the PCM .dlls already on the system. So it would be necessary to stop that performance monitoring service first.  I got the error message shown below.  If you work with it some more, you could figure out which Windows service would need to be stopped to get it working.  I will do that in a future post, but so far I was not able to find instructions on which Windows service to stop.

Intel Screen Performance 5


April 24, 2014

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Windows Performance 2

Using the Windows Performance Monitor to monitor Processors

Here we give a brief overview of processor performance monitoring with the Microsoft Performance monitor.  The Windows Performance monitor (perfmon) is a tool that you can use to take a look at an individual Windows server.  It is including with Windows 2008 and other versions of Windows.

The tool lets you:

  • Track performance of services and applications
  • Generate alerts when performance exceeds thresholds

The limiting factors on performance on a single machine are:

  • Disk throughput
  • Memory
  • Processor speed and number of process
  • Network card throughput

You use the Performance Monitor to add specific counters to the dashboard.  Each metric is shown in a different color.  You can pick line or bar charts.  Click anywhere on the chart to drill into the specific value of that item at that point in time.

In order to use the Performance Monitor, you need to be a member of the Administrators and Performance Log Users group in Active Directory.

Here is the main screen.  You add monitor groups by category.  In this post we are going to look at some of the processor-related monitoring metrics.

You cannot make sense of the performance monitor if all the scales on the vertical axis are the same, because more than one the metric would be grouped at the top, where you cannot read them. So you would want to change the scale for each variable.

Windows Performance 1

Let’s look at processor performance metrics.

Microsoft says a processor bottleneck begins to perform when:

  • Process % Processor Time > 80%
  • Processor Queue Length > 2
  • High values in interrupts

Taking a look at this view of processor-related performance metrics, we have selected % Processor Time and Interrupts per Second.  We will only list two, because the screen will get to busy to read

Windows Performance 2

This machine has 2 Intel I7 CPUs running at 2.4 GHz, each with 4 cores.  The Performance Monitor shows both processors together.  This server is running Apache.  What do these numbers tell us?

Below we give general definitions of each metric without describing whether what we are observing now is normal or not, since that is a topic unto itself.

% Processor Time

This is the amount of time that the CPU is busy as opposed to waiting.

Interrupts per second

An interrupt is just that: the processor has to stop what it is doing to handle something that the operating system hands it.  A hardware interrupt example is, for example, pressing a key on the keyboard or tasks required for the disk or network card.

Windows Performance 3

A very high rate of interrupts could indicate a disk or adaptor problem or it could mean a problem between distributing the load between processors.

% DPC Time

DPC means deferred procedure call.  % DPC Time is the percentage of time that the processor is in a deferred procedure call.  Microsoft says these are interrupts that have a lower priority than the interrupts measured in the other metric.  Presumably that means they are deferred to some kind of queue, which is what we explain next.

DPCs queued per second

DPCs that have been waiting in a queue.

Here is the complete list of measurable quantities in the Performance Monitoring screen:

Windows Performance 4

%C1 Time, C2, C3 Time

These show the percent of time that the processors spend in low-power idle state.   In other posts we will dig more deeply into processor monitoring and configuration.

Suggestions for further Reading:

Windows Performance Monitoring Getting Started

Analyzing Processor Activity

April 16, 2014

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Yorkshire Building Society Deploying Correlsense Software

The UK’s Second Largest Building Society will use Correlsense Software to Monitor Performance of Corporate and Branch Office Applications

Framingham, Mass. – April 16, 2014 – Correlsense, the leading enterprise Application Performance Management (APM) company, today announced that Yorkshire Building Society (YBS) is deploying its SharePath software in the UK. YBS will use the software to monitor its extensive portfolio of website and financial applications to ensure that customers experience consistent performance every minute of the day on any device.

SharePath is designed to monitor all user transactions in real time across a wide variety of technologies, infrastructure components and endpoints.  Individual SharePath customers now use thousands of collectors to monitor their mission-critical applications. SharePath’s big data architecture correlates information from all these sources to track performance in the most complex environments.

YBS is the second largest building society in the UK and the building society from which it traces its roots was established in 1864. With headquarters based in Bradford, West Yorkshire, England, the Society is part of Yorkshire Building Society Group which also includes Chelsea Building Society, Norwich and Peterborough Building Society (N&P), Barnsley Building Society and intermediary only lender, Accord Mortgages.

The Group has assets of £34.5billion and provides mortgages, insurance, savings and other financial services to around 3.4 million customers. It has 231 branches, 96 agencies and employs approximately 4,300 people. YBS Group maintains one of the best customer advocacy levels within UK financial services sector and in 2013 it won 12 awards for customer excellence.

“Yorkshire Building Society is one of the UK’s leading financial services providers ,” said Ken Marshall, CEO of Correlsense. “As the Society provides more services to more customers the performance of its software is key to customer satisfaction.”

Andy McCleod, Head of IT Service Delivery at YBS said: “APM allows us to see data move from each key stroke to our databases through to our servers. For the first time we can see data running through the veins of applications and infrastructure. This new capability adds value to our business and to our development and test teams because it speeds up diagnosis and reduces the cost of support and development.”

“After a rigorous competitive analysis we selected Correlsense because of their unique ability to monitor our broad range of technologies, old and new. YBS was treated like a long-term partner from the first day our relationship,” added Andy McCleod.

Corrrelsense’s software tracks complex user transactions across their complete journey and isolates the source of a problem. Once identified, SharePath customers can easily  a “deep dive” to view the details of the issue and determine the best course of corrective action. SharePath also helps customers capture information that may be used to provide better customer service and increase the reliability of their revenue generating applications.

About Correlsense
Correlsense is the leading enterprise APM company and delivers customer value by ensuring that all business-critical applications perform effectively. It is the APM product of choice for business and IT operations managers who rely on sophisticated enterprise applications. Correlsense paints a complete picture of IT service levels and performance for applications that span mobile, SaaS, data centers, and the Cloud. SharePath customers include some of the world’s largest financial, telecom, gaming, and healthcare firms. For more information, visit

Editorial Contacts
Bill Blundon

March 11, 2014

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Centerity and Correlsense Sign Global Distribution Agreement

The Two Companies Partner to Create a Holistic, End-to-End Product Model for Enterprise Application Performance (APM) and Business Service Management (BSM) Monitoring

Needham and Framingham, Mass. – March 11, 2014 – Correlsense and Centerity Systems today announced that they have signed a joint, global distribution and technical integration agreement across their combined software portfolios. Centerity provides award-winning software that provides a NextGen, unified platform for enterprise-class monitoring of all IT assets including all virtual, physical, cloud, application and Big Data assets culminating in holistic Business Service Management (BSM) process views. Correlsense provides the leading platform for enterprise application performance monitoring (APM). The integrated product suite represents a whole product model for complete monitoring the performance, status and availability of enterprise IT systems.

Centerity’s software enables companies to view their entire IT systems and infrastructure assets via a single pane of glass. It enables companies to implement Business Service Management (BSM) facilities so they can define and run their operations based on the organization’s needs and align IT’s deliverables with corporate objectives.  The software provides smart root cause, dependency and trend analysis to dramatically reduce mean-time-to-repair (MTTR).  Centerity’s platform also incorporates a Big Data Monitoring Layer holistically covering solutions such as SAP HANA, Hadoop, MongoDB and NoSQL.

Correlsense’s SharePath software enables enterprise IT teams to efficiently isolate and diagnose application problems in real time and provides in-depth analytics to promote continuous improvements in both performance and user experience. Unlike other monitoring tools that focus only on development languages, network, or infrastructure components, SharePath accurately measures each user transaction and how it is impacted by every component and connection across the broadest variety of infrastructure, middleware, applications, and endpoints.

“Nearly every company runs their business on software,” said Ken Marshall, CEO of Correlsense. “As the APM market enters the mainstream, enterprises want a holistic approach to identifying and diagnosing performance problems so they can accelerate their critical applications.”

While Centerity offers the broadest end-to-end coverage of enterprise IT assets on the market today for complex, hybrid environments, Correlsense offers the deepest coverage in the APM spectrum” says Marty Pejko, COO of Centerity.  “With Correlsense providing such deep analytics on the vertical application domain and Centerity providing such broad analytics on the horizontal IT/Infrastructure domain, customers now have total coverage of all of its critical applications and business processes across the entire spectrum.”   

About Centerity Systems
Centerity Systems, Inc., headquartered in Needham, MA USA, is the pioneering developer of NextGen, All-in-One, enterprise-class and carrier-class monitoring solutions for critical information systems and IT infrastructure in complex, hybrid environments. Centerity’s advanced features provide accurate measurement (SLA/OLA) of performance and availability as well as Business Service Management (BSM), End-User Experience Monitoring (EUX), Inventory/Asset and Dynamic Threshold Management as well as smart root cause, dependency and systemic trend analysis.   Centerity’s new Big Data Monitoring Layer technology now extends its already broad coverage to the most important big data platforms on the market today (SAP HAP, Hadoop, MongoDB and No SQL).  For more information, visit

About Correlsense
Correlsense is the leading enterprise APM company and delivers customer value by ensuring that all business-critical applications perform effectively. It is the APM product of choice for business and IT operations managers who rely on sophisticated enterprise applications. Correlsense paints a complete picture of IT service levels and performance for applications that span mobile, SaaS, data centers, and the Cloud. SharePath customers include some of the world’s largest financial, telecom, gaming, and healthcare firms. For more information, visit

Editorial Contacts
Marty Pejko
Centerity Systems
Phone +1-781-898-3188

Bill Blundon
Phone +1 508-318-6488 x211

January 31, 2014

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What does SLA Mean?

Service level agreements (SLAs) describe how an operation performs within agreed limits. To say that one is operating within the agreed service level means that the average and the average variation from that average (i.e., the variance) are within agreed ranges.

Some common uses of SLA are:

  • Mean-time-to-failure (e.g., expected life time of a disk drive)
  • Average time to close service tickets (e.g., help desk)
  • Transaction response time (i.e., performance monitoring)
  • Up-time (e.g., the time that an application is available)

How do you know when your system is operating within the terms of an SLA?

Let’s take an example.  Suppose that the SLA for a transaction is 1.5 seconds on average with one standard deviation.  The standard deviation is a measurement of how far, on average, a set of observed data is from the average of that data.  The standard deviation also gives the probability of an observed value given the standard deviation and the average.  The probabilities of 1,2,3, and 4 standard deviations are:





This means, for example, that 99.73% of observed values are expected to be within three standard deviations of the average.

If our service level is one standard deviation, for example, that means we would expect 68.26% of transactions to be within one standard deviation of the average.  Since we are talking about performance, we are not concerned with transactions that exceed the minimal threshold.  We only want to make sure that they do not fall below this threshold in terms of standard deviation.

Let’s suppose our average transaction response time is 1.5 seconds and our agreed standard deviation is 1.  Then we are saying that, on average, our transaction response time will not exceed 1.5 (average) + 1 (standard deviation)=2.5 seconds.

Suppose now our performance has slowed to the point that we have these observed values:

Average response time=3.267

Standard deviation=2.715

What is our SLA compliance?  This is the same as asking what percentage of transactions fall outside the SLA.

To compare two sets of data, they have to be on the same scale.  In statistics, the average and standard deviation are shown as a bell curve.  In order to see how we are operating with regards to the SLA we have to draw these two curves using the same normalized values.  These are called z values.

Take a look at the bell curve below.

SLA Graphic


This is a plot of the performance we see now in terms of normalized values z.  Now our performance is average 3.267 and standard deviation 2.715.  Our SLA says that we will have an average of1.5 and standard deviation of 1.  Our agreement is that our transaction response time will not exceed x=1.5+1=2.5 seconds, in terms of standard deviation and average.  This is z=-0.65 when you normalize it, meaning calculate z=(1.5-3.267)/2.715=-0.65.    Now we are operating at z=(3.267+2.715)/2.715=2.2

So what percentage of our performance measurements are between z=-0.65 and z=2.2.  Consulting a standard normal table that tells us the cumulative probability that an event is between 0 and z=-0.65 is 24.2%.  The probability that z is between 0 and 2 is 47.7%.  The probability that z lies between these two values then is 24.2%+47.7%=71.9%. 71.9% of observations are outside our SLA in terms of average and standard deviation.

Your contract with your client might assess a penalty based upon the failure to meet the SLA.  In this case 71.9% of our transactions are operating outside agreed thresholds.  Depending on how long this situation persists, the surcharge could be large or small.

January 21, 2014

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Correlsense Announces Immediate Availability of SharePath 3.5

New release of the company’s flagship software extends its leadership position in the enterprise application performance management market

Framingham, Mass. – January 21, 2014 – Correlsense, the leading enterprise Application Performance Management (APM) company, today announced that it has delivered Release 3.5 of its SharePath software. This version includes a wide variety of enhancements designed to broaden the product’s footprint in the enterprise:

  • Reduced cost of ownership by monitoring more applications in less time
  • Increased scalability by managing more applications with the same hardware
  • Enhanced method-level hot spot detection and code analytics for multiple programming languages
  • Advanced search features for its integral big data store
  • Flexible and intuitive business transaction naming
  • Expanded alerting and notification options

 SharePath is designed for enterprise environments where there are multiple server platforms, programming languages, software applications, middleware products, and a variety of endpoints. SharePath monitors languages like Java and C, integration components like queue managers and enterprise service busses, and a wide variety of operating systems and databases. A highly scalable backend allows customers to use hundreds of collectors to monitor many operational applications using a common management server.

 “Delivering software for the enterprise requires a level of sophistication that most APM vendors simply don’t have,” said Lanir Shacham, founder and CTO. “SharePath’s unique ability to correlate big data streams and to detect a broad range of performance issues across all components and tiers is unmatched in the industry.”

Large corporations often rely on composite applications spanning new software, legacy code, and packaged solutions. Employees and customers may access them from Internet browsers, terminals, or rich clients like desktop workstations. A single user transaction may touch dozens of servers and applications inside the company and in the cloud.

SharePath tracks individual user transactions across all hops in this long journey and isolates the source of a problem. Once identified, SharePath customers can easily view the details and determine the best course of corrective action. SharePath also helps customers identify potential problems and capture information that may be used to provide better customer service and more efficient revenue generating applications.

SharePath Release 3.5 is available for download today for customers worldwide.

About Correlsense
Correlsense develops and markets enterprise application performance management and IT monitoring software for major corporations worldwide. It is the APM product of choice for business and IT operations managers that rely on complex and critical enterprise applications. Correlsense paints a complete and dynamic picture of IT service levels and performance for applications that span mobile, SaaS, data center and the cloud.  SharePath customers include some of the world’s largest financial, telecom, gaming, and healthcare firms. For more information, visit

Editorial Contacts

Bill Blundon

Phone +1 508-318-6488 x211